Test methods for heavy clay ceramic raw materials: ceram-technological behaviour
(secondary properties) – part 2

Prior to designing any dryer and kiln layout, Lingl ­always conducts comprehensive raw material tests. This is the basis for high-quality products made by Lingl’s customers. This two-part article presents those laboratory tests at least necessary from the point of view of the plant supplier as well as supplementary tests. Part 1 of the article (Zi 4/2013) deals with material analyses of the raw materials (primary properties). Part 2 presents tests on the ceram-technological behaviour, i.e. the drying and firing behaviour (secondary properties) as well as possible tests on pilot-plant scale.

3 Ceram-technological behaviour (secondary properties)

The primary properties of a clay or a batch result in a definite ceram-technological behaviour, which can be simulated under laboratory conditions or partly on pilot scale. The ceram-technological tests serve as a basis for the design and the optimization of dryers and kilns, the development and optimization of batches or the detection of firing faults.

3.1 Preparation and shaping

According to [38] the main demands in ensuring the plastic mouldability of heavy clay materials refer to
› the processing properties (mouldability without...

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